These regions are not as divided by race or religion as in America. The people in the Appalachians were more independent than those on the coast, which led to conflict. During the time of the American Revolution, there were many changes. the american nations today atlantic ocean part of the spanish caribbean pacific ocean the far west the left coast el norte deep south greater appalachia the midlands the midlands yankeedom yankeedom new france new france first nation new netherland tidewater source: colin woodard, american nations: a history of the eleven rival Their culture spread across the middle of the country, as did that of Pennsylvania, which was also founded by Quakers. They founded public schools at a time when there weren’t many in America and thought higher education was more important than social class. Appalachians tended to settle in rural areas and establish few towns or schools. âIn American Nations, [Colin Woodard] persuasively reshapes our understanding of how the American political entity came to be. The planters fashioned a new constitution based on old one. The convention decided not to secede but instead push for a series of constitutional amendments that would weaken slavery’s influence in government by preventing Southern states from counting their slaves toward representation in Congress. The Indians were also afraid of being attacked by settlers who weren’t friendly towards them because they’d previously lived peacefully with French people before this law was passed. Midlanders saw fighting against tyranny as an opportunity but those on The Left Coast saw it as an anti-authoritarian fight with opportunities for growth (the Far West). Most of those settlers came from Appalachia, so they tended to settle on farms rather than in towns or government positions. People tended to settle their disputes with violence rather than seek outside help or legal intervention. New Netherlanders were eager to prepare for war, perhaps because so many of them came from countries endangered by the Nazis, and the Left Coast, Far West, and El Norte followed, in part because there were so many military bases and plants in the region. The Midlands of the United States attempted to stay neutral during the Civil War. American Nations: A History of the Eleven Rival Regional Cultures of North America is an American non-fiction book written by Colin Woodard and published in 2011. During the Civil War, the South organized its resistance to the North through its churches. In addition, when we say something is “American” culture today, we mean these diverse cultures mixed together. The Constitution was a conservative document that kept power in the hands of only a few. There were pockets where people opposed scientific inquiry and modernism because they wanted to go back to an earlier time. Even better, it helps you remember what you read, so you can make your life better. Connecticut claimed the northern third of Pennsylvania, and Massachusetts claimed all of New York west of Seneca Lake. They had a monopoly on imperial trade and never experienced self-government like Yankeedom did. Democratic landslides are prevalent in Yankeeland (New England), The Left Coast (Pacific Northwest), and El Norte (California), while Republican landslides dominate Greater Appalachia (Appalachia and surrounding regions), Tidewater (Virginia/North Carolina border area), Deep South(South Carolina through Texas) & Far West(Far Western states). During the Revolutionary War, some people sided with either side based on which one would respect their clan’s autonomy if they won—this shows how divided America was at that time. The most enduring alliance is that between Yankeedom and the Left Coast, which started in 1848. After 1778, when British left Philadelphia for New York and the West Indies, Appalachian residents took charge of occupying Continental Army units which cracked down on opposition groups. Temperance and Prohibition. These regions were competitive with each other and thought about leaving the union after they won independence from England during the Revolutionary War. Many were offended by the fact that Tejanos were biracial and distrusted Latin Americans because they had previously been part of Mexico. The principles held dear by each colony often conflicted with those of other colonies, and those conflicting agendas shaped the founding and growth of the United States. However, representatives from Yankeedom (New England), Tidewater (Virginia and Maryland), and Deep South (Georgia) interfered in their affairs with support from Appalachia. Fearing a “Popish plot”, they refused to pay taxes or follow orders from Andros. Amazon.com: Study Guide: American Nations by Colin Woodard (SuperSummary) (9781690733799): SuperSummary: Books The Loyalists fled from the American Revolution to Canada, and they brought with them their British heritage. On the other hand, Southerners supported using American force but were wary about federal power. Greater Appalachia was the last region to be colonized. ", American Nations contends that, on most matters, two major alliances of nations are commonly opposed to each other: the northern alliance of Yankeedom, the New Netherlands and the Left Coast, and the southern alliance of the Deep South, Greater Appalachia, and Tidewater. Politically, the Midlanders were Democrats. Unfortunately for those slaves, after 1781 there was no more war between Britain and America. In the 1600s, sugar cultivation was a highly lucrative business. However, some groups were more unified than others. You'll love my book summary product Shortform. The review, like others, identifies a bias in Yankee Woodard's characterizations of Deep South. Even though we’re united as one country, these regions still maintain their distinctive ideals which is evident in Congress and presidential election maps. American mobility only adds to this phenomenon as people tend to settle where their worldviews are valued. Woodard runs through many possible scenarios for the US, but he believes that it will likely end up in one of three ways: 1) Americans compromise on their agendas and unite; 2) We dissolve into different regions with new coalitions; or 3) We give more power to states over federal government. The culture of New France is very liberal. The Congregational and Presbyterian churches lost popularity across Yankeedom in favor of Unitarians and Methodists. This unity helped them form a strong sense of community quickly that made it easy for them to revolt against British rule with the Boston Tea Party in 1773 after Parliament revoked Massachusetts’ charter in 1774. Another group didn’t want a revolution because they were pacifists or content with the status quo. They even kidnapped children before turning to African slaves who became chattel (property) for them because of how cruel they treated them. The first settlers of the region were Mormons, who migrated to Utah because they wanted a utopian society. In American Nations, Colin Woodard leads us on a journey through the history of our fractured continent, and the rivalries and alliances between its component nations, which conform to neither state nor international boundaries. Yankees venerated the second paragraph of the Declaration, wiâ¦ Militiamen seized control of the state house and arrested Dominion officials. In American Character, Colin Woodard traces these two key strands in American politics through the four centuries of the nationâs existence, from the first colonies through the Gilded Age, Great Depression and the present day, and he explores how different regions of the country have successfully or disastrously accommodated them. Have too much to read? Appalachian people went down the Ohio River Valley to parts of Tennessee, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Missouri, and Texas Hill Country. In 1689, a revolt broke out in Boston. The colony remained fractious as protests continued against England’s rule. The United States was in a vulnerable position after it gained independence. Your email address will not be published. The Yankees (a group of people from the north) sent missionaries among them to convert them into more productive citizens, but the Appalachians preferred fiery itinerant preachers. They were more tolerant of other people and cultures than anyone else in America. New Englanders brought their culture with them wherever they went. Multiculturalism is valued in New Netherland and the Midlands but not elsewhere, and Protestant culture isn’t dominant in El Norte. The Yankees sent some of their men back to England in order to fight against the Royalists and shake off the Norman yoke. The Northern Alliance, however, was still intact and continued to fight for its agenda. Takeaways from Mark Zuckerberg: How to Build the Future (YC’s The Macro), The Best Things I Learned from Ashton Kutcher, Tech Investor, Best Summary + PDF: The Power of Habit, by Charles Duhigg, The Best Things I Learned from Sara Blakely, Spanx Founder, Best Summary + PDF: How Not to Die, by Michael Greger, Medical Apartheid Book Summary, by Harriet A. Washington, Prisoners Of Geography Book Summary, by Tim Marshall, Every Day Book Summary, by David Levithan, The Warmth Of Other Suns Book Summary, by Isabel Wilkerson, Too Big To Fail Book Summary, by Andrew Ross Sorkin, Interactive exercises that teach you to apply what you've learned. New Netherland’s government is corrupt but its residents are more open-minded than many other Americans. New Netherland had a unique relationship with the rest of the United States. They also thought that the Creoles were Catholic, which was a problem for them. New Netherland was the stronghold of the loyalists during the American Revolution. They established schools for African Americans, as well as colleges. From 1877 to 1897, this coalition controlled federal politics by imposing high tariffs on European imports that were used for pensions for Union veterans (all of whom lived in Yankeedom). In the Deep South, however, there was a high mortality rate for slaves. Their settlements were located between Yankeedom’s communitarian intolerance and Appalachia’s hedonism. One example of resistance is when Arkansas called out its National Guardsmen to prevent nine African-American students from entering a white high school in Little Rock until President Eisenhower mobilized federal troops and nationalized the Arkansas National Guard. Many also petitioned the Assembly to excuse them from military service against America. Bush and Democrats John F. Kennedy and Barack Obama. Opposition came mainly from Tidewater where Jefferson and Madison wrote a resolution supporting states’ rights over federal powers. Towns still have a lot of self-government today, which is why New Englanders are so involved in their communities. The region began to contemplate expanding to Mexico or Nicaragua, fearing that Spain would free Cuban slaves and become a refuge for runaway slaves. The Puritans were disliked by many people. Continued German immigration meant that Midlander culture dominated over Yankee and Appalachian culture in the Heartland region. Since the mid-1960s, this region has supported conservative candidates such as Ronald Reagan and George W. Bush. Get started. Midlanders were opposed to preparing for war, in part because so many of them were from Germany while New Englanders had mixed feelings about it. In Quebec, the French learned from their Native American neighbors and intermarried with them. Appalachia did not have cities nor jobs for immigrants while El Norte was far too remote for most immigrants. As a result, people started to demand rights such as voting and equality for blacks. They also witnessed the signing of the Declaration of Independence. On the other hand, regions such as New Netherland had been multiethnic from their beginnings and were places where it was normal for outsiders to settle in. However, by the 1860s, Europeans immigrating to Yankeedom and the Midlands meant that these regions had more power than ever before in Congress. In Appalachia, poor whites were even poorer after losing so many men during battle and found themselves competing with freed blacks for jobs. The Dutch colony in the New World had few colonists, and they were run as a commercial venture. However, Woodard argues that this is not true because there were many Yankee settlers in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia who did not have a British background. The people in Appalachia were angry about it and decided to make their own currency, which was illegal at the time. They also made French an official language in Quebec, which caused tension between them and other Canadian provinces because many Canadians spoke English or another language besides French as well as French. There are several regions in the United States. Therefore, it was actually the Yankees who influenced Canadian culture rather than vice versa. After Cromwell and his Puritan allies fell, the colonies felt that a monarchy was too oppressive. Download "American Nations Book Summary, by Colin Woodard" as PDF. Appalachians were torn between their hatred of the North and the South. In fact, most members of this alliance are more conservative than their counterparts in other alliances because they’re not as liberal as Northern Democrats tend to be. The city’s legacy of slavery continued for many years after it became known as New York City. Their power was only matched by that of the Deep South, which kept them contained within certain areas until they could move further north and west. The Deep South wavered because they didn’t want to break with England. Meanwhile, Midlanders settled in the middle of the country and imposed their Germanic culture on it. Itâs tempting to think about the United States as a pretty monolithic country and culture. People had not been involved in politics before the war, but they became more vocal during it. The French settlement in Nova Scotia was originally started on an island in Maine. Runaways were punished harshly and masters who refused to mete out punishments also got punished. Noting that the original thirteen colonies were established at different times and by different groups with different goals and values, Woodard shows how these colonies both cooperated and competed from their founding. The Deep South developed a philosophy that was based on the belief in slavery. The Tidewater and Appalachia have not always supported the apartheid system of the Deep South. James, who was the Duke of York at that time and later became king, ruled over New York in an autocratic way. Southerners were more cautious but didn’t want to fight against fellow members of the gentry or England. However, this was not true as there were many droughts in the region after that time. This is a common idea among intellectuals, including those who were wary of immigration at the turn of the 20th century. The British left Boston after losing many battles there due to Yankee forces; this made New England the center of rebellion against Britain until 1776 when independence was declared officially by all 13 colonies. Woodard characterizes the American Revolution as conservative instead of truly revolutionary, and he also states that it was the action of “a loose military alliance”, each nation having its own agenda. , The Washington Post calls it "a compelling and informative attempt to make sense of the regional divides in North America in general and this country in particular", noting how American Nations builds on the foundation of David Hackett Fischer's Albion's Seed and addresses immigration and mobility with the argument that new arrivals adapt to the existing cultures. Quakers also headed west into Ohio and central Indiana, which became the center of Quakerdom by 1850s due to increased migration from Pennsylvania where many Quakers lived at that time. When they were attacked by the British again in 1780, slaves joined them because they wanted freedom for themselves and their families. The Puritans believed that everyone should read the Bible, so they made sure all children were educated. The spirit of resistance in Yankeedom died down when Adams became President. Woodard believes there were six revolutions in the American Revolution. They embraced outward trappings of aristocracy and had a close connection with London because they made themselves Anglican. The culture wars of the 1990s and 2000s were a continuation of social upheavals in the 1960s. While the region still has sway over publishing brands such as Conde Nast Publications or Harper Collins Publishing, it also controls fashion via Vogue Magazine, financial industries with Bloomberg L.P., media with NBCUniversal Media etc. Historian David Hackett Fischer also wrote about four of these regions in Albion’s Seed. Residents of the Deep South were wary of supporting independence at first, but then saw it as a way to defend their way of life. For example, dams were built to provide irrigation for farms in Montana. In the 1860s, a railroad company launched an advertising campaign that promised good agricultural conditions. It’s also home to the technology industry including companies like Google and Microsoft as well as environmental movements. Environmentalists created Sierra Club in San Francisco. In many places, there were more slaves than whites. The positions of those "swing" nations determine shifts in the balance of power in the US. British observers at the time thought this union would become weaker over time due to regional differences between different colonies within each state that caused disagreements among them during wartime conflicts against Britain. Woodard is not the first person to have developed this idea. The Deep South instigated the Civil War to form its own state (the Confederacy) and then endorsed states’ rights and racial segregation. Like this summary? At the same time, there was a youth rebellion in Yankeedom, New Netherland and on the Left Coast. They are now dealing with two side effects: they have some of the characteristics of statehood and there is a widespread call for democracy. These conditions made it impossible for other nations such as Yankees, Midlanders, and Appalachians to settle here because they couldn’t grow crops or access waterways. The Southern States tried to fight back by creating a culture war that continues today but has not been successful so far. However, Tidewater society followed a Greek/Roman ideal that most people are not born free or equal; instead they saw slavery as a necessity for their culture. In addition, some of the people from New England did not support President Adams because he was against slavery. As few Spaniards came with wives, many married Native Americans over time; mestizos, people of mixed Spanish and Indian ancestry, were born. In 1860, people in the slave-owning states voted for Lincoln because he was a Southerner who shared their views on slavery (even though Yankees hated him). Each region has a nucleus of power and influence that can change over time. He explains why âAmerican valuesâ vary sharply from one region to â¦ It wasn’t because they wanted freedom because there were no laws prohibiting their actions when they arrived in 1630s. In addition, class determined one’s station rather than race or ethnicity like it did elsewhere in America at this time period; therefore black people sometimes owned other black people as property if they were freedmen or women (rather than being born into slavery). These people were called Yankees by others in the colonies because they came from New England states. Child Welfare, Labor, and adoption. It had little concern for social cohesion and was purely mercantile, with diverse populations of many religions. They have cut taxes for rich people while eliminating labor laws and environmental regulations. The founders of the Deep South were mostly white men from Barbados who brought their slave-based social system to Charleston, Georgia and South Carolina. After the Civil War, the United States settled into a kind of Cold War with the Deep South and Tidewater. White Southerners used this as an excuse to keep African-Americans from going to school with white students and getting jobs that whites wanted. The war continued until the Indians started losing more people than what was sustainable for their population size, which made them give up without a fight eventually. He tried to get their weapons but failed because Pocahontas begged for John Smith’s life after her father attempted to kill him. Canada’s First Nations tribes have also seen a resurgence recently. Before that, the East was at odds with New France over control of fur trade in North America. While there were some similarities in the culture of Appalachians no matter where they lived, those living in the Deep South had to deal with a more violent environment. The Germans didn’t want to live among Yankees either because they feared that those people would shut down their beer halls on Sundays and stamp out everything German about them. He personally oversaw the takeover of millions of acres of Indian lands before he even became president. After King William III took office, he did not agree to all of the colonists’ demands. The immigrants made up about 10% of the population at any one time. The Midwest is a region that’s been wary of both the Yankees and the Deep South. Slaves were marched from coastal areas inland on what has been called “The Second Middle. Chapter Summaries & Analyses. When the First Continental Congress was held, there were different groups of people. The New England region supported freedom and thought that the other regions were not as free. Both groups want to improve society through well-managed government, though the Left Coast has also added an environmental campaign. They had strong opinions on it, and they opposed it. Other states were divided, and Chicago was originally settled by Yankees but then influenced by Midlanders and Appalachia. In the late 16th century, Spain founded a nation in North America. After the Gold Rush in 1849, Yankees increasingly turned to saving their region from what they considered were barbarians descending on the area. In the 1960s, there were a lot of cultural revolutions. The Puritans also mistrusted others, especially Indians, whom they considered savages. Opinions about the use of power abroad have been split since the 1830s. American Nations: A History of the Eleven Rival Regional Cultures of North America Colin Woodard. The Whiskey Rebellion was a result of the tax on whiskey. Borrowing fruitful notions from Joel Garreauâs Nine Nations of North America (1981) and David Hackett Fischerâs Albionâs Seed: Four British Folkways in North America (1989), Woodard traces the differences in Americaâs regions to cultural, ethnic, religious and political differences among various strains of settlers, many of them long in play back in the British Isles. Banditry in the backcountry also caused tension between the mountain region and coastal areas because it invited thievery. This region has given rise to many military members, bluegrass music and evangelism. The Deep South wanted to have a strong president, so they created the electoral college and an executive branch that would be elected indirectly. The Democrats at that time represented Southern states, immigrants (particularly Catholics), and slaves; those Midlanders who belonged to churches with a social reform message became Republicans while those who did not stayed as Democrats. In order for Dixie to survive, it needs to win over this group by abandoning its commitment to white supremacy. They have also supported lowering taxes for wealthy people and other right wing positions that are shocking to Northerners who support liberal causes like Martin Luther King Day. They also wanted to preserve their way of life, which was threatened by encroaching settlers. 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